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Introduction to Research: Works Cited

This is a brief introduction to research in the Library, how to decide on a research topic, how to find relevant materials and how to cite them.

Citing Books MLA Style

Book: General

AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname. Title.  Publisher, Year.  

Book:
Single Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.  

Book: Two or more works by Same Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.  

---. Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind, and His Music. U of Chicago P, 1968.

Book:
Two Authors

Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. CyberAge Books, 2004. 

Book:
Three or More Authors

Davidson, William, et al. Retailing Management. 6th ed. Wiley, 1988.  

Note: You may also include full names of all the authors in the order listed on the title page.

Book:
No Author

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference. JIST Works, 2000.  

Book: Multivolume

If using two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes after the title (or editor). If published over several years, give the range of years.

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols.  U of Chicago P, 1968-78. 

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Vol. 2.U of Chicago P, 1969. 

If the one volume you are using has its own individual title, you may cite the book without reference to the other volumes.

Wright, Sewell. Theory of Gene Frequencies. U of Chicago P, 1969.

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. Greenwood Press, 2005. 47-64.

Electronic Book

Wynn, Neil A. The African American Experience during World War II. Rowman & Littlefield Pub., 2010. EBSCOhost,  search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=336935&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 11 June 2019.

For additional examples and explanations, see MLA Handbook 8th ed.

Print Articles

Journal

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Article Title." Journal Title Vol.Num Date. pages. 

Journal 

Graham, Sarah. “Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s.” Journal of American Studies  vol. 40 no. 2 Spring 2006, pp. 418-19. 

 

Magazine 

Reed, Stanley. “Seeing Past the War.” Business Week 21 Aug. 2006, pp. 35-36. 

Newspaper

Seward, Zachary. “Colleges Expand Early Admissions.” Wall Street Journal 14 Dec. 2006, Eastern ed., pp. D1-D2. 

Only include vol and no. when citing Academic Journals.

Do not include vol or no when citing Magazine or Newspaper articles.

For additional examples and explanations, see  MLA Handbook 8th ed. 

Online Articles

Cite the work like you would a print article, add Name of Database, if applicable. 

Conclude the entry with the DOI or URL and (optional) Date of access (day, month, and year).

EBSCOhost

Academic Journal 

Shah, Parilah Mohd, and Fauziah Ahmad. "A Comparative Account of the Bilingual Education Programs in Malaysia and the United States." GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies vol 7 no. 2 Summer 2007, pp. 63-77. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2307/1207258. Accessed 7 June 2019.

 

JSTOR

Academic Journal 

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture vol. 10 no. 3 Oct. 2000, pp. 203-255. JSTOR, doi:10.2307/1207258. Accessed 7 June 2019.

 

For additional examples and explanations, see MLA Handbook 8th ed.

Web pages - Non-Periodical Works Cited Only Online

An entry for a nonperiodical publication on the Web usually contains most of the following components, in sequence:

  1. Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work
  2. Title of the work (italicized if the work is independent; in roman type and quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work
  3. Title of the overall Web site (italicized), if distinct from item 2
  4. Version or edition used
  5. Publisher or sponsor of the site; if not available, use N.p.
  6. Date of publication (day, month, and year, as available); if nothing is available, use n.d.
  7. Date of access (day, month, and year)

Each item is followed by a period except the publisher or sponsor, which is followed by a comma. Untitled works may be identified by a genre label (e.g., Home page, Introduction, Online posting), neither italicized nor enclosed in quotation marks, in the place where the title goes.

Example:

Quade, Alex. "Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines." CNN.com. Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2007, URL.  Accessed. 26 Apr. 2019.

Example with no author:

"Hourly News Summary." National Public Radio. Natl. Public Radio, 20 July 2007. , URL.  Accessed. 26 Apr. 2019.

Website Home Page:

Liu, Alan, ed. Home page. Voice of the Shuttle. Dept. of English, U of California, Santa Barbara, n.d., URL.  Accessed. 26 Apr. 2019

Online Map:

"Maplewood, New Jersey." Map. Google Maps. Google, 23 July 2007, URL.  Accessed. 26 Apr. 2019.

Tweet (Twitter Post):

LastName, FirstName (Username). "The tweet in its entirety." Twitter Date, Time.

Smith, John (smithdogg). "This Has Sure Been a Hot Summer."  Twitter 12 August 2011, 2:36 p.m. 

 

For additional examples and explanations, see MLA Handbook 8th ed.

Personal Interviews, Films, Television Programs, Videos

You may include other information (names of performers, directors, etc.) if they are pertinent. List the most important as the main entry.

Personal Interview

Bush, George W. Personal Interview. 10 Feb. 2007.

Film

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Universal Pictures, 1982.

Recorded Film

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. Dir. Chris Columbus. 2001. Warner Bros., 2002. 

Broadcast TV Program

“The Soup Nazi.” Seinfeld. NBC. WTHR, Indianapolis. 2 Nov. 1995.

Recorded TV Program

"The Soup Nazi." Seinfeld: Season 7. NBC, 2006. 

YouTube

Science Videos. "Posh and Posher: Class Politics in the UK." YouTube, www.youtube.com/watch?v=tF70JhG7J84. Accessed 6 June 2019.

 

For additional examples and explanations, see  MLA Handbook 8th ed.

Sound Recordings, Musical Compositions, Performances

You may include other information (names of performers, directors, etc.) if they are pertinent. List the most important as the main entry.

Entire Albums

The Beatles. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band. Capitol Records, 1967. 

Individual Songs

Sinatra, Frank. “Strangers in the Night.” Rec. 1966. My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra. Warner, 1996. 

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, Sally, narr. To Kill a Mockingbird. 1960. By Harper Lee. Recorded Books, 1988. 

Musical Composition

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Oliver Ditson, 1932. 

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. 1811.  Belwin, 1994. Kalmus ConcertMasters Series.

Performance

The Nutcracker. Dir. Richard Clark. Butler Ballet. Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis. 2 Dec. 2008. 

 

For additional examples and explanations, see  MLA Handbook 8th ed.