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INTRODUCTION to RESEARCH

This is a brief introduction to research in the Library, how to decide on a research topic, how to find relevant materials and how to cite them.

Authors

Two Authors Hock, R., & Price, G.

Multiple Authors

Hock, R., Price, G., Smith, F. J., Grant, L., Taylor, M. N., Appleby, J. K., & Haley, T. M.                                                         

Academic Journal Articles

Academic Journal

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Vol, pages. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Note: Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned. If you retrieved the article online and no DOI is available, include the journal's home page URL.)

Journal  with DOI

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Magazine

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). http://www.apa.org/monitor/

Newspaper 

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com

For additional examples, see  APA Publication Manual.

Books (Print & Online)

Book: General

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. http://www.xxxxxxxx
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. doi:xxxxx

Book: Print Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Book: Electronic Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/dxeprint/index.asp

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0034586772

Entry in Online Reference Work

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.).  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism.

Entry in Online Reference Work (No Author)

Trebuchet. (2009). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary (11th ed.). http://www.merriam -webster.com/dictionary/trebuchet.

Book:
No Author

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis: JIST Works.

Book: Multivolume

When citing a multivolume work:

Wright, Sewell. (1968-1978). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. (Vols. 1-4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. (1969). Theory of Gene Frequencies: Vol. 2. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., R. F. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

For additional examples, see  APA Publication Manual.

Video and Audio

Entire Albums

The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club band [Record]. United States: Capitol Records.

Individual Songs

Glover, Frank. (2009). One way ticket. On Politico [CD]. n.l.: Owl Studios.

Rerecording by Artist other than Writer

Goodenough, J. B. (1982). Tails and trotters [Recorded by G. Bok, A. Mayo, & E. Trickett]. On And so will we yet [CD]. Sharon, CT: Folk-Legacy Records. (1990)

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To kill a mockingbird (Cassette). United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.

Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

Motion Picture Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.
Video

Ryan, K. O., & Schrank, L. (Writers). (2008). Body language I: Beyond words [DVD]. http://www.learningseed.com/

Single Episode from Television Series

David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup nazi [Television series episode]. In Seinfeld. New York: NBC.

Images and Tables Retrieved Online

If you use an image, table, or figure (or some data in a table or figure) from another source, then you must acknowledge your source in a note below the table or figure.

Map Retrieved Online

Lewis County Geographic Information Systems (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. http://www.co.lewis.wa.us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census-pop-dens_2000.pdf

YouTube

Science Videos. (2019, February 14)  Posh and posher: class politics in the UKDocumentary. [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tF70JhG7J84.

For additional examples, see  APA Publication Manual.

Web Sources

Message Posted to Newsgroup, Discussion Group, Online Forum, etc.

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment].http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/ipisforum/Weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments

Message Posted to Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ForensicNetwork/message/670

Blog Post

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php

Entire Website

Coronavirus: Five ways the outbreak is hitting global food industry. //www.bbc.com/news/world-52267943

 

For additional examples, see  APA Publication Manual.

Performances & Personal Communications

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, non-archived electronic communications, personal interviews, live performances, etc. are not included in the reference list, because they do not provide recoverable data.

Instead, you should cite these sources in your text with initial and last name of the communicator and as exact a date as possible.

Samples:

M. E. Daniels, Jr. (personal communication, July 4, 2009), explained in an email that . . .

(Butler Ballet, performance, December 13, 2008)